Wednesday, 17 August 2011

How much Exercise?

Interviews of elite athletes done by staff for Healthy Aging®, show that at least one hour of cardiovascular activity a day is a key to fitness. The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services has announced what it feels is the way for adults to gain substantial health benefits through moderate aerobic physical activity. They say it is two and a half hours a week -- that's around 20 minutes per day for adults. The recommendations for children are one hour per day.

According to HHS, "The guidelines are designed so people can easily fit physical activity into their daily plan and incorporate activities they enjoy."

Physical activity benefits children and adolescents, young and middle-aged adults, older adults, and those in every studied racial and ethnic group, the report said.

“It’s important for all Americans to be active, and the guidelines are a roadmap to include physical activity in their daily routine,” HHS Secretary Mike Leavitt said. “The evidence is clear -- regular physical activity over months and years produces long-term health benefits and reduces the risk of many diseases. The more physically active you are, the more health benefits you gain.”

Regular physical activity reduces the risk in adults of early death; coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. It can improve thinking ability in older adults and the ability to engage in activities needed for daily living. The recommended amount of physical activity in children and adolescents improves cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness as well as bone health, and contributes to favorable body composition.

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are the most comprehensive of their kind. They are based on the first thorough review of scientific research about physical activity and health in more than a decade. A 13-member advisory committee appointed in April 2007 by Secretary Leavitt reviewed research and produced an extensive report.

Key guidelines by group are:

Children and Adolescents -- One hour or more of moderate or vigorous aerobic physical activity a day, including vigorous intensity physical activity at least three days a week. Examples of moderate intensity aerobic activities include hiking, skateboarding, bicycle riding and brisk walking. Vigorous intensity aerobic activities include bicycle riding, jumping rope, running and sports such as soccer, basketball and ice or field hockey. Children and adolescents should incorporate muscle-strengthening activities, such as rope climbing, sit-ups, and tug-of war, three days a week. Bone-strengthening activities, such as jumping rope, running and skipping, are recommended three days a week.

Adults -- Adults gain substantial health benefits from two and one half hours a week of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity, or one hour and 15 minutes of vigorous physical activity. Walking briskly, water aerobics, ballroom dancing and general gardening are examples of moderate intensity aerobic activities. Vigorous intensity aerobic activities include cycling, racewalking, jogging or running, swimming laps, jumping rope and hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes. For more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to five hours a week moderate-intensity or two and one half hours a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Adults should incorporate muscle strengthening activities, such as weight training, push-ups, sit-ups and carrying heavy loads or heavy gardening, at least two days a week.

Older adults -- Older adults should follow the guidelines for other adults when it is within their physical capacity. If a chronic condition prohibits their ability to follow those guidelines, they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow. If they are at risk of falling, they should also do exercises that maintain or improve balance.

Women during pregnancy -- Healthy women should get at least two and one half hours of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week during pregnancy and the time after delivery, preferably spread through the week. Pregnant women who habitually engage in vigorous aerobic activity or who are highly active can continue during pregnancy and the time after delivery, provided they remain healthy and discuss with their health care provider how and when activity should be adjusted over time.

Adults with disabilities -- Those who are able should get at least two and one half hours of moderate aerobic activity a week, or one hour and 15 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity a week. They should incorporate muscle-strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups two or more days a week. When they are not able to meet the guidelines, they should engage in regular physical activity according to their abilities and should avoid inactivity.

People with chronic medical conditions -- Adults with chronic conditions get important health benefits from regular physical activity. They should do so with the guidance of a health care provider.

SOURCE: Healthy Aging® news room and US Dept of HHS

Monday, 15 August 2011

More than a glimmer of hope for third world economies?

World Bank: Emerging markets reshaping landscape

A worker walks amongst shipping containers at the Port of Shanghai January 19, 2011. REUTERS/Carlos Barria

WASHINGTON | Tue May 17, 2011 1:06pm EDT

(Reuters) - Growth in emerging-market countries is outpacing developed countries so greatly that the global economic landscape will be wholly altered over the next 15 years, a World Bank study on Tuesday predicted.

"By 2025, six major emerging economies -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, South Korea and Russia -- will account for more than half of all global growth, and the international monetary system will likely no longer be dominated by a single currency," the study said.

Currently, the U.S. dollar serves as the world's reserve currency but the study said there has been "a slow decline in its role since the late 1990s" that was likely to continue.

"The most likely global currency scenario in 2025 will be a multi-currency one centered around the dollar, the euro and the renminbi," the report's lead author, Mansoor Dailami, said at a press conference.

The World Bank said it expects a sharp divergence in growth to continue between the emerging-market nations and old-line rich powers like the United States and other Group of Seven members: Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Japan.

The study estimated that emerging economies will grow on average by 4.7 percent a year between 2011 and 2025, twice the 2.3 percent growth rate likely to occur in advanced countries.

By 2025, the United States, the euro area and China will constitute the world's three major "growth poles," the World Bank said, providing stimulus to other countries through trade, finance and technological developments and thus creating global demand for all of their currencies, not just the dollar.

The net result, the study concluded, should be greater stability to the international monetary regime than exists in the current dollar-centered system.

A multi-currency regime would more broadly distribute lender-of-last-resort responsibility and make it easier to boost liquidity during times of market distress without as much disruption as is often the case now.

Hans Timmer, the World Bank's director of development prospects, said the shift to a multi-currency regime would not diminish the dollar's importance and would not happen rapidly.

"For the United States, it's still possible that this will only be a gradual prospect," he said. "Very likely the dollar will still be dominant...but it will no longer be alone."

(Reporting by Glenn Somerville; Editing by Leslie Adler)

Thursday, 11 August 2011

Poles Melting And Fossil Fuels Running Out Update

Deforestation, particularly in the Amazon Jungle accounts for about three times as much as the worse CO2 producing countries at current annual rates of CO2 emission. These CO2 levels remain high as after being removed the Forest can no longer fulfil its role of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Pole Melting will cause catastrophic global flooding of all low laying land, affecting the Poverty Stricken if action is not taken.